Steam boilers have been in use for well over 200 years. In 1698, Thomas Savery, an English military engineer and inventor, patented the first crude steam engine which was developed to pump water out of coal mines. (Necessity is the mother of invention.)
Boilers are pressure vessels that contain a great deal of potential energy. Steam explosions can and have caused great loss of life in the past. While variations in standards may exist in different countries,stringent legal, testing, training and certification is applied to try to minimize or prevent such occurrences.
Failure modes include:
Overpressurization of the boiler
Insufficient water in the boiler causing overheating and vessel failure
Pressure vessel failure of the boiler due to inadequate construction or maintenance
Keystone Steam Supplies carries a full line of products to regulate and control boiler operation in order to prevent the first two of these failure modes (the third one is out of our control). These include: